The following points are key elements to Andrew Goodwins theory. I am now going to analyse Jay-Z's video to his song '99 problems'.
- Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics (e.g. dance routine for boy/girl band).
- There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals.
- There is a relationship between music and visuals.
- The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close ups of the artist and the artist may develop motifs which reoccur across their work.
- There is frequently reference to notion of looking (screens within screens, telescopes, etc.) and particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female body.
- There is often intertextual reference (to films, TV programmes, other music videos etc.)
Straight away, the audience can tell that this song fits straight into the 'rap' genre just from the costume worn in the video. Items of clothing such as baseball caps, baseball jackets and baggy jeans, as well as accessories like diamond earrings and chains are on show.
The video has an overall 'gangster' feel to it. We get this feeling as the whole video is shot in black white. There is no colour in the video which gives it a dark and almost dangerous feel to it. The 'gangster' feeling is portrayed an many other ways too. It is set in Brooklyn, where Jay-Z is from. This gives the feel as if he has gone home, and what we see in the video, are memories he is reminiscing from his childhood. Brooklyn is famously known for being a rough place, swarming with gang crime and other criminal related elements. This is proven from the content in this video. Within the video, we also see dog fighting and women flaunting their sex appeal. This exemplifies the lower-class area and danger of Brooklyn.
Throughout the song, there is a strong relationship between the visuals and lyrics. For example, one lyric in the song is "I try to ignore, I talk to the lord". When these lyrics are sung, an image of a chrome Lord Jesus appears.
Also, whenever the word 'bitch' is said, a majority of the time, a woman or women will be shown.